DISCOVERING, NARROWING, AND FOCUSING A RESEARCHABLE TOPIC
Try to find a topic that truly interests you
Try writing your way to a topic
Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topic
Pose your topic as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved
FINDING, SELECTING, AND READING SOURCES
You will need to look at the following types of sources:
library catalog, periodical indexes, bibliographies, suggestions from your instructor
primary vs. secondary sources
journals, books, other documents
GROUPING, SEQUENCING, AND DOCUMENTING INFORMATION
The following systems will help keep you organized:
a system for noting sources on bibliography cards
a system for organizing material according to its relative importance
a system for taking notes
WRITING AN OUTLINE AND A PROSPECTUS FOR YOURSELF
Consider the following questions:
What is the topic?
Why is it significant?
What background material is relevant?
What is my thesis or purpose statement?
What organizational plan will best support my purpose?
WRITING THE INTRODUCTION
In the introduction you will need to do the following things:
present relevant background or contextual material
define terms or concepts when necessary
explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose
reveal your plan of organization
WRITING THE BODY
Use your outline and prospectus as flexible guides
Build your essay around points you want to make (i.e., don’t let your sources organize your paper)
Integrate your sources into your discussion
Summarize, analyze, explain, and evaluate published work rather than merely reporting it
Move up and down the “ladder of abstraction” from generalization to varying levels of detail back to generalization
WRITING THE CONCLUSION
If the argument or point of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
If prior to your conclusion you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to add your points up, to explain their significance.
Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction.
Perhaps suggest what about this topic needs further research.
REVISING THE FINAL DRAFT
Check overall organization: logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion.
Paragraph level concerns: topic sentences, sequence of ideas within paragraphs, use of details to support generalizations, summary sentences where necessary, use of transitions within and between paragraphs.
Sentence level concerns: sentence structure, word choices, punctuation, spelling.
Documentation: consistent use of one system, citation of all material not considered common knowledge, appropriate use of endnotes or footnotes, accuracy of list of works cited