Two Primary Dissertation Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative
Qualitative research focuses on examining the topic via cultural phenomena, human behavior, or belief systems. This type of research uses interviews, open-ended questions, or focus groups to gain insight into people’s thoughts and beliefs around certain behaviors and systems.
Ayn O’Reilly, PhD, core research faculty in the School of Public Service Leadership (PSL) and co-chair of the PSL Scientific Merit Review Committee, notes there are several approaches to qualitative inquiry. The three most routinely used include:
“This is the most common approach for studying work environments,” said O’Reilly. The research involves the use of multiple sources of data. This might include interviews, field notes, documents, journals, and possibly some quantitative elements (more information on quantitative research follows). A case study focuses on a particular problem or situation faced by a population and studies it from specific angles. For example, a researcher might look at violence in the workplace, focusing on when, where, or how it occurs.
Generic Qualitative Inquiry
Also called generic qualitative, generic inquiry, or other variations. “This is the fallback approach,” said O’Reilly. “A generic qualitative inquiry is conducted when the student has qualitative research questions, but the study does not meet the requirements of a case study or phenomenology. So the researcher may be using similar methods, but will not have as thorough of a foundation of research available.” For that reason, it’s also less desirable, because the research isn’t going to be as extensive and inclusive. The researcher could run into problems with less data to analyze. O’Reilly notes that it’s a better approach for someone who is perhaps seeking a second advanced degree and has done a considerable amount of research, or who just needs to answer a research question or subtopic.
Quantitative research involves the empirical investigation of observable and measurable variables. It is used for theory testing, prediction of outcomes, and determining relationships between and among variables using statistical analysis. Ellen Mink, PhD, core research faculty in the School of Public Service Leadership and co-chair of the PSL Scientific Merit Review Committee, outlines two primary data sources for quantitative research:
Primary Data Collection
In this approach, data are collected by the researcher. Participants are recruited for study, informed consent is obtained, and quantitative data are obtained either electronically or in person by the researcher. This approach allows the researcher to decide exactly what variables he or she is interested in exploring and how they will be operationalized in the study. Variables are measured using instruments whose psychometric properties (reliability and validity) have been established by other authors. Data are analyzed using statistical techniques to assess the nature of the relationships between and among variables.
Secondary Data Analysis
This approach involves the statistical analysis of data collected by other researchers or organizations. There are a number of publicly available data sets for researchers, often from large-scale, federally funded research projects or data repositories. Secondary data analysis may save time for researchers as participant recruitment and data collection are avoided. It is also a way to access information about vulnerable populations in an ethical manner (as it does not involve direct contact). However, when utilizing this approach, researchers must build their research questions based on the available data.
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