Dear Reader,

Today we make a big projects whether its necessary to write an  proposal or synopsis initially based on which the work can be implemented more better. At Assignment writing  we do a thorough research and  provide topics if needed based on requested domain. Based on the selected domain and topic research criteria and other methodology of research are taken into consideration.

Further in this post a rather a clear declaration is made how really to write up an Research proposal.

There are lot of  links wherein you will get an idea how really an Research proposal need to be written.Please do find the below some form of proposal which can be taken into consideration.

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

“The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research” (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 96).

  1. In an introduction, the writer should
  2. create reader interest in the topic,
  3. lay the broad foundation for the problem that leads to the study,
  4. place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature, and
  5. reach out to a specific audience. (Creswell, 1994, p. 42)

Statement of the Problem

“The problem statement describes the context for the study and it also identifies the general analysis approach” (Wiersma, 1995, p. 404).

A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study. This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention. It is a key element that associations such as AERA and APA look for in proposals. It is essential in all quantitative research and much qualitative research.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study” (Locke, Spirduso, & Silverman, 1987, p. 5). If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader

Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the research. You will revisit this in greater detail in a later section

Review of the Literature

The literature review accomplishes several important things.

It shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990).

Questions and/or Hypotheses

A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988).

Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research (at times even the taste and preference of committee members, particularly the Chair).

Operational alternative—Similar to the literary alternative except that the operations are specified. For example, “The more that nontraditional-aged college women use the student union, the more they will persist at the college after their freshman year.” Or, “Students in the upper quartile of the Self-regulated Inventory distribution achieve significantly higher grade point averages than do students in the lower quartile.”

The Design–Methods and Procedures

Perhaps the key word in sampling is representative. One must ask oneself, “How representative is the sample of the survey population (the group from which the sample is selected) and how representative is the survey population of the target population (the larger group to which we wish to generalize)?”

Instrumentation

Outline the instruments you propose to use (surveys, scales, interview protocols, observation grids). If instruments have previously been used, identify previous studies and findings related to reliability and validity. If instruments have not previously been used, outline procedures you will follow to develop and test their reliability and validity. In the latter case, a pilot study is nearly essential.

Data Collection

Outline the general plan for collecting the data. This may include survey administration procedures, interview or observation procedures. Include an explicit statement covering the field controls to be employed. If appropriate, discuss how you obtained entré.

Provide a general outline of the time schedule you expect to follow.

Data Analysis

Specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately (e.g., ANOVA, MANCOVA, HLM, ethnography, case study, grounded theory). If coding procedures are to be used, describe in reasonable detail. If you triangulated, carefully explain how you went about it. Communicate your precise intentions and reasons for these intentions to the reader. This helps you and the reader evaluate the choices you made and procedures you followed.

Indicate briefly any analytic tools you will have available and expect to use (e.g., Ethnograph, NUDIST, AQUAD, SAS, SPSS, SYSTAT).

Provide a well thought-out rationale for your decision to use the design, methodology, and analyses you have selected.

Limitations and Delimitations

A limitation identifies potential weaknesses of the study. Think about your analysis, the nature of self-report, your instruments, the sample. Think about threats to internal validity that may have been impossible to avoid or minimize—explain.

A delimitation addresses how a study will be narrowed in scope, that is, how it is bounded. This is the place to explain the things that you are not doing and why you have chosen not to do them—the literature you will not review (and why not), the population you are not studying (and why not), the methodological procedures you will not use (and why you will not use them). Limit your delimitations to the things that a reader might reasonably expect you to do but that you, for clearly explained reasons, have decided not to do.

Significance of the Study

  1. Indicate how your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the area under investigation. Note that such refinements, revisions, or extensions may have either substantive, theoretical, or methodological significance. Think pragmatically (i.e., cash value).
  2. Most studies have two potential audiences: practitioners and professional peers. Statements relating the research to both groups are in order.
  3. This can be a difficult section to write. Think about implications—how results of the study may affect scholarly research, theory, practice, educational interventions, curricula, counseling, policy.
  4. When thinking about the significance of your study, ask yourself the following questions.
  5. What will results mean to the theoretical framework that framed the study?
  6. What suggestions for subsequent research arise from the findings
  7. What will the results mean to the practicing educator?

 

References

Only references cited in the text are included in the reference list; however, exceptions can be found to this rule. For example, committees may require evidence that you are familiar with a broader spectrum of literature than that immediately relevant to your research. In such instances, the reference list may be called a bibliography.

Appendixes

The need for complete documentation generally dictates the inclusion of appropriate appendixes in proposals (although this is generally not the case as regards conference proposals).

 

Source: http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/proposal.html

http://ors.ou.edu/proposal/elements.html

 

 

 

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